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Date: March 17, Email: [email protected] 6. documents will be obtained directly atgiven belowaddress: USD or 3,, VND. Let's you select your preferred exchange rate provider: Yahoo Finance or European Central Bank. Downloads the latest Release date. 3/26/ More. Actual, Previous, Highest, Lowest, Dates, Unit, Frequency Vietnam GDP From Construction at VND Billion · Vietnam GDP From Vietnam Gasoline Prices at USD/Liter Vietnam Balance of Trade at USD Million.
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SHI annual fee and advantages. OPC in Vietnam have been located in a separated place at hospitals to reduce the contact to HIV non-infected patients due to persistent high social stigma in Vietnam society . Only 2 factors job kind, education level impact significantly to the difference between patient groups with p Patients who do not work for companies have higher rate of not having SHI card compare to patients working for companies 8.
Stigma does not only exist in society, but also in hospitals; it comes from general health staffs, who do not work in HIV domain. This means that patients want to keep their ART continuous in future with SHI co-payment regardless their fear of disclosure, stigma and service quality. In Vietnam, SHI is obligatory for all who work for any companies, but it is optional for people who work for non-companies self-employed, free-lancer, small vendors, farmers In our study, The only available data was the proportion of SHI before the consultancy program.
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With limited budget and time, only patients were recruited for the survey. The real proportion of SHI card could not be collected during the time of study, and it is hardly to determine exactly due to the different expire date of SHI card with different time of purchase.
Existing technologies can meet some of these challenges, but the set of technological tools needs to be augmented by successful outcomes of new research and development efforts.
These successful outcomes that result in technological change may be associated with large changes in investment and in the capital composition, as well as changes in behavior. The need to reduce anthropogenic emissions such as carbon emissions can be obtained through a mix of policies, which include incentives to modify behavior and investment in research and development of cleaner technologies. The efficient policy is a uniform global price for carbon, as well as uniform prices for other environmental amenities such as land.Vietnamese Money
The efficient policy can be implemented using carbon tax, and subsidizing carbon sequestration and storage. Alternatively, under certain conditions an efficient outcome can be achieved using tradable permits.
Yet another option might be to levy a tax on fuel consumption, introduce land use management practices, and price other observable activities based on the calculation of their greenhouse gas emissions. This system should be complemented with increase spending on research and development for clean technologies, as well as research and monitoring activities to better assess the evolution of greenhouse gases and their implications.
However, the difficulty of estimating the marginal cost of the pollution externality usually prevents the application of an efficient solution, and regulators resort to a second best alternative to pursue cost-effective policies whereby a country or a global community aims to achieve a predetermined pollution reduction target at the lowest cost. Cost effective polices impose a uniform tax on greenhouse gases, that may be implemented through carbon taxation or a cap and trade schemes.
However, policy instruments are chosen to meet multiple objectives not only efficiencyand their selection is affected by political economic considerations. Thus, the objective of environmental regulation of climate change may simply be to limit the increase in average temperature or the amount of carbon emitted to the air.
Pollution problems usually are contained within countries, and governments establish policies such as taxes, property rights, and standards to regulate them. When, however, externalities are transnational or global, as is the case of greenhouse gases, a governess structure to establish and enforce policies is needed.
That is the reason for international agreements or international conventions that establish mechanisms for sharing responsibilities for pollution reduction and coordinating policy among countries.
Although a ton of carbon is a ton of carbon and so the price of carbon should not vary widely among emitter, one cannot simply disregard any distributional effects that may prevent countries from joining an international agreement on the environment and adhering to their commitment in the future. Differences in GDP, energy sector infrastructure, and growth prospective among nations affect their perspective and preferences on greenhouse gas management, resulting in further difficulties in reaching an international agreement on the environment.
Differences among countries, in terms of endowments and technologies, can be addressed by employing a compensating mechanism. With respect to tradable permits, a compensation mechanism may include grandfathering rights and allocation of permits. Another compensation mechanism that should be further considered, especially with regards to land management and land pricing practices, are payment for environmental services.
This is a mechanism to improve provision of indirect environmental services, in which those who provide the environmental service get paid landowners are paid not to cut down the tropical forest and produce soybeanswhile those who benefit from environmental services pay for their provision. Payment for environmental services can be used to prevent deforestation in tropical forests, and induce carbon sequestration in developing countries.
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Compensation can also be obtained by linking environmental agreement with trade agreements, although the cost will probably be less trade. In addition to international differences, there are intersectoral differences, making the design of effective polices to consistently address greenhouse gas emissions in the urban agricultural sector, as well as the industrial sector, very challenging.
The design of climate change polices require integration of scientific and economic data and knowledge, and calls for interdisciplinary collaboration. One of the major topics of research on climate change should aim to address issues of irreversibility and uncertainty.
The evolution of the biofuel sector and the policies that guided it, illustrates some of the challenges of establishing policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Although many expected that the introduction of biofuels to result in less dependence on foreign oil and less greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, the actual effect of biofuels on greenhouse gases depend on the feedstock used and the technology used to convert the feedstock to biofuels.