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Industrial Revolution - Wikipedia

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In the 15th century China began to require households to pay part of their taxes in cotton cloth. By the 17th century almost all Chinese wore cotton clothing. Almost everywhere cotton cloth could be used as a medium of exchange. In India a significant amount of cotton textiles were manufactured for distant markets, often produced by professional weavers.

Some merchants also owned small weaving workshops. India produced a variety of cotton cloth, some of exceptionally fine quality. Sea island cotton grew in tropical areas and on barrier islands of Georgia and South Carolina, but did poorly inland.

Sea island cotton began being exported from Barbados in the s. Upland green seeded cotton grew well on inland areas of the southern U. The Age of Discovery was followed by a period of colonialism beginning around the 16th century.

Following the discovery of a trade route to India around southern Africa by the Portuguese, the Dutch established the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie abbr. VOC or Dutch East India Company and the British founded the East India Companyalong with smaller companies of different nationalities which established trading posts and employed agents to engage in trade throughout the Indian Ocean region and between the Indian Ocean region and North Atlantic Europe.

One of the largest segments of this trade was in cotton textiles, which were purchased in India and sold in Southeast Asia, including the Indonesian archipelago, where spices were purchased for sale to Southeast Asia and Europe.

By the mids cloth was over three-quarters of the East India Company's exports. Indian textiles were in demand in North Atlantic region of Europe where previously only wool and linen were available; however, the amount of cotton goods consumed in Western Europe was minor until the early 19th century.

Earlier European attempts at cotton spinning and weaving were in 12th-century Italy and 15th-century southern Germany, but these industries eventually ended when the supply of cotton was cut off. The Moors in Spain grew, spun and wove cotton beginning around the 10th century. Occasionally the work was done in the workshop of a master weaver. Under the putting-out system, home-based workers produced under contract to merchant sellers, who often supplied the raw materials.

In the off season the women, typically farmers' wives, did the spinning and the men did the weaving. Using the spinning wheelit took anywhere from four to eight spinners to supply one hand loom weaver. It became widely used around Lancashire after when John's son, Robertinvented the drop box, which facilitated changing thread colors.

The technology was developed with the help of John Wyatt of Birmingham. Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey.

In a factory opened in Northampton with 50 spindles on each of five of Paul and Wyatt's machines. This operated until about A similar mill was built by Daniel Bourn in Leominsterbut this burnt down. Both Lewis Paul and Daniel Bourn patented carding machines in Based on two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds, it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill.

Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright in his water frame and Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule. Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal. Invented by James Hargreaves inthe spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the revolution. In in the village of Stanhill, Lancashire, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jennywhich he patented in It was the first practical spinning frame with multiple spindles.

The jenny produced a lightly twisted yarn only suitable for weftnot warp. The design was partly based on a spinning machine built for Thomas High by clockmaker John Kay, who was hired by Arkwright.

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The roller spacing was slightly longer than the fibre length. Too close a spacing caused the fibres to break while too distant a spacing caused uneven thread. The top rollers were leather-covered and loading on the rollers was applied by a weight.

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The weights kept the twist from backing up before the rollers. The bottom rollers were wood and metal, with fluting along the length. A horse powered the first factory to use the spinning frame. Arkwright and his partners used water power at a factory in Cromford, Derbyshire ingiving the invention its name. The only surviving example of a spinning mule built by the inventor Samuel Crompton.

Water frame

The mule produced high-quality thread with minimal labour. Samuel Crompton 's Spinning Mule was introduced in Mule implies a hybrid because it was a combination of the spinning jenny and the water frame, in which the spindles were placed on a carriage, which went through an operational sequence during which the rollers stopped while the carriage moved away from the drawing roller to finish drawing out the fibres as the spindles started rotating.

Mule spun thread was of suitable strength to be used as warp, and finally allowed Britain to produce highly competitive yarn in large quantities. In he patented a two-man operated loom which was more conventional.

Cartwright's loom design had several flaws, the most serious being thread breakage. Samuel Horrocks patented a fairly successful loom in Eli Whitney responded to the challenge by inventing the inexpensive cotton gin.

A man using a cotton gin could remove seed from as much upland cotton in one day as would previously, working at the rate of one pound of cotton per day, have taken a woman two months to process. He is credited with a list of inventions, but these were actually developed by such people as Thomas Highs and John Kay ; Arkwright nurtured the inventors, patented the ideas, financed the initiatives, and protected the machines.

He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power — first horse power and then water power —which made cotton manufacture a mechanised industry.

Other inventors increased the efficiency of the individual steps of spinning carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling so that the supply of yarn increased greatly. Before long steam power was applied to drive textile machinery. Manchester acquired the nickname Cottonopolis during the early 19th century owing to its sprawl of textile factories.

However, the high productivity of British textile manufacturing allowed coarser grades of British cloth to undersell hand-spun and woven fabric in low-wage India, eventually destroying the industry. Productivity improvement in wool spinning during the Industrial Revolution was significant but was far less than that of cotton.

Lombe learned silk thread manufacturing by taking a job in Italy and acting as an industrial spy; however, because the Italian silk industry guarded its secrets closely, the state of the industry at that time is unknown.

Although Lombe's factory was technically successful, the supply of raw silk from Italy was cut off to eliminate competition. In order to promote manufacturing the Crown paid for models of Lombe's machinery which were exhibited in the Tower of London. The burning coal remained separate from the iron and so did not contaminate the iron with impurities like sulphur and silica. This opened the way to increased iron production. The Iron BridgeShropshireEngland, the world's first bridge constructed of iron opened in Cast iron retaining plates; H.

Bridge wall UK iron production statistics Bar iron was the commodity form of iron used as the raw material for making hardware goods such as nails, wire, hinges, horse shoes, wagon tires, chains, etc. A small amount of bar iron was converted into steel.

Cast iron was used for pots, stoves and other items where its brittleness was tolerable. Most cast iron was refined and converted to bar iron, with substantial losses. Bar iron was also made by the bloomery process, which was the predominant iron smelting process until the late 18th century.

In the UK in there were 20, tons of cast iron produced with charcoal and tons with coke. In charcoal iron production was 24, and coke iron was 2, tons. In the production of charcoal cast iron was 14, tons while coke iron production was 54, tons.

In charcoal cast iron production was 7, tons and coke cast iron wastons. In the UK was makingtons of bar iron with coke and 6, tons with charcoal; imports were 38, tons and exports were 24, tons.

In the UK did not import bar iron but exported 31, tons. For a given amount of heat, coal required much less labour to mine than cutting wood and converting it to charcoal, [45] and coal was much more abundant than wood, supplies of which were becoming scarce before the enormous increase in iron production that took place in the late 18th century. In the smelting and refining of iron, coal and coke produced inferior iron to that made with charcoal because of the coal's sulfur content.

Low sulfur coals were known, but they still contained harmful amounts. Conversion of coal to coke only slightly reduces the sulfur content. Another factor limiting the iron industry before the Industrial Revolution was the scarcity of water power to power blast bellows. This limitation was overcome by the steam engine.

These were operated by the flames playing on the ore and charcoal or coke mixture, reducing the oxide to metal. This has the advantage that impurities such as sulphur ash in the coal do not migrate into the metal. This technology was applied to lead from and to copper from It was also applied to iron foundry work in the s, but in this case the reverberatory furnace was known as an air furnace.

The foundry cupola is a different, and later, innovation. By Abraham Darby made progress using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale. He had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than theirs.

Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce wrought iron until —56, when Darby's son Abraham Darby II built furnaces at Horsehay and Ketley where low sulfur coal was available and not far from Coalbrookdale. Nikon's entry, the Nikon Fhad a full line of interchangeable components and accessories and is generally regarded as the first Japanese system camera. It was the F, along with the earlier S series of rangefinder cameras, that helped establish Nikon's reputation as a maker of professional-quality equipment.

Instant cameras Polaroid Model J66, While conventional cameras were becoming more refined and sophisticated, an entirely new type of camera appeared on the market in This was the Polaroid Model 95, the world's first viable instant-picture camera. Known as a Land Camera after its inventor, Edwin Landthe Model 95 used a patented chemical process to produce finished positive prints from the exposed negatives in under a minute.

The Land Camera caught on despite its relatively high price and the Polaroid lineup had expanded to dozens of models by the s. The first Polaroid camera aimed at the popular market, the Model 20 Swinger ofwas a huge success and remains one of the top-selling cameras of all time. By the s, however, low-cost electronic components were commonplace and cameras equipped with light meters and automatic exposure systems became increasingly widespread. The next technological advance came inwhen the German Mec 16 SB subminiature became the first camera to place the light meter behind the lens for more accurate metering.

Digital cameras See also: Their low operating costs have relegated chemical cameras to niche markets.

History of the camera

Digital cameras now include wireless communication capabilities for example Wi-Fi or Bluetooth to transfer, print or share photos, and are commonly found on mobile phones. Early development The concept of digitizing images on scanners, and the concept of digitizing video signals, predate the concept of making still pictures by digitizing signals from an array of discrete sensor elements. Early spy satellites used the extremely complex and expensive method of de-orbit and airborne retrieval of film canisters.

Technology was pushed to skip these steps through the use of in-satellite developing and electronic scanning of the film for direct transmission to the ground. The amount of film was still a major limitation, and this was overcome and greatly simplified by the push to develop an electronic image capturing array that could be used instead of film.

It had a charge-coupled device CCD array with a resolution of x pixels 0. Their US patent was granted on 10 November The first recorded attempt at building a self-contained digital camera was in by Steven Sassonan engineer at Eastman Kodak. The prototype camera was a technical exercise, not intended for production.

Analog electronic cameras Main article: Still video camera Handheld electronic cameras, in the sense of a device meant to be carried and used like a handheld film camera, appeared in with the demonstration of the Sony Mavica Magnetic Video Camera. This is not to be confused with the later cameras by Sony that also bore the Mavica name. The image quality was considered equal to that of then-current televisions. Canon RC, Analog electronic cameras do not appear to have reached the market until with the Canon RC Canon demonstrated a prototype of this model at the Summer Olympicsprinting the images in the Yomiuri Shinbuna Japanese newspaper.

Capturing and printing an image originally required access to equipment such as a frame grabber, which was beyond the reach of the average consumer. The "video floppy" disks later had several reader devices available for viewing on a screen, but were never standardized as a computer drive. The early adopters tended to be in the news media, where the cost was negated by the utility and the ability to transmit images by telephone lines.

The poor image quality was offset by the low resolution of newspaper graphics. This capability to transmit images without a satellite link was useful during the Tiananmen Square protests of and the first Gulf War in US government agencies also took a strong interest in the still video concept, notably the US Navy for use as a real time air-to-sea surveillance system.