James Fieser | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy | Page 2
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At parte ex alia, qua saxa rotantia late saxa: Ausonidum turbata fremor, ceu saxa morantur saxa: Forte ratis celsi coniuncta crepidine saxi saxi: Templa dei saxo venerabar structa vetusto: Ilioneus saxo atque ingenti fragmine montis saxo: Est procul in pelago saxum spumantia contra saxum: Pygmalion, scelere ante alios immanior omnes.
Tydides sed enim scelerumque inventor Ulixes, scelus: Tu mihi, quodcumque hoc regni, tu sceptra Iovemque sceptra: Sic nos in sceptra reponis? Ac primum silici scintillam excudit Achates, scio: Scipiadas, cladem Libyae, parvoque potentem scire: Tum vero ardemus scitari et quaerere causas, scitatum: Fronte sub adversa scopulis pendentibus antrum, scopulis: Sergestus capit ante locum scopuloque propinquat, scopulos: Aeneas scopulum interea conscendit, et omnem scrupea: Caulonisque arces et navifragum Scylaceum.
Vos et Scyllaeam rabiem penitusque sonantis Scyllaeque: Centauri in foribus stabulant Scyllaeque biformes Scyllam: Centauro invehitur magna, Scyllaque Cloanthus scyphus: Eurum ad se Zephyrumque vocat, dehinc talia fatur: Illi se praedae accingunt, dapibusque futuris; se: Infert se saeptus nebula, mirabile dictu, se: Se quoque principibus permixtum adgnovit Achivis, se: Cum venit, aulaeis iam se regina superbis se: Dardanidae, qui se ignotum venientibus ultro, se: Primus se Danaum magna comitante caterva se: Punica se quantis attollet gloria rebus!
Tum se ad Caietae recto fert limite portum. Allecto in Teucros Stygiis se concitat alis, se: Dixit, deinde lacu fluvius se condidit alto se: Exim se cuncti divinis rebus ad urbem se: Haec ubi dicta dedit, solio se tollit ab alto se: Interea biiugis infert se Lucagus albis se: Haec ubi dicta dedit, caelo se protinus alto se: Illi haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant se: Troia, captivo sive ut se ferret in auro se: Aeneas acuit Martem et se suscitat ira, se: Oebale, quem generasse Telon Sebethide nympha secabant: Carpathium Libycumque secant [luduntque per undas].
Massicus aerata princeps secat aequora Tigri, secat: Turnum, qui volucri curru medium secat agmen.
Est in secessu longo locus: Solvite corde metum, Teucri, secludite curas. Talia flammato secum dea corde volutans secum: Ascaniusque omnisque domus, ne vertere secum secum: Dardanus, et nostrae secum ferat omina mortis.
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Aegyptum virisque Orientis et ultima secum secum: His actis aliud genitor secum ipse volutat secumque: Durate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis. Neptunus ventis implevit vela secundis, secundis: Turnus ego, haud ulli veterum virtute secundus, secundus: Mars perdere gentem securi: Caedicus Alcathoum obtruncat, Sacrator Hydaspen caedis: Turnus adest medioque in crimine caedis et igni caedis: Tantaene animis caelestibus irae? Quisquis es, haud, credo, invisus caelestibus auras caelestibus: Iri, decus caeli, quis te mihi nubibus actam caeli: Hunc tu olim caelo, spoliis Orientis onustum, caelo: Aetnaeos fratres caelo capita alta ferentis, caelo: Irim de caelo misit Saturnia Iuno caelo: Iamque dies caelo concesserat almaque curru caelo: Haec ubi dicta dedit, caelo se protinus alto caelo: Iam caelum terramque meo sine numine, venti, caelum: Vertitur interea caelum et ruit Oceano nox caelum: Interea magno misceri murmure caelum caelum: Atlantis duri caelum qui vertice fulcit, caelum: Principio caelum ac terras camposque liquentis caelum: Ni faciat, maria ac terras caelumque profundum caelumque: Eripiunt subito nubes caelumque diemque caelumque: Ortygium Caeneus, victorem Caenea Turnus, Caeneus: Ortygium Caeneus, victorem Caenea Turnus, caeno: Scyllam et caeruleis canibus resonantia saxa.
Nascetur pulchra Troianus origine Caesar, Caesar: Augustus Caesar, divi genus, aurea condet Caesar: Palladium caesis summae custodibus arcis, caesis: Palladii caesis late custodibus arcis caesis: Hectoreum ad tumulum, viridi quem caespite inanem caespite: Tum se ad Caietae recto fert limite portum. Vos, o Calliope, precor, aspirate canenti callis: Hos super advenit Volsca de gente Camilla Camilla: Obvia cui Volscorum acie comitante Camilla Camilla: Italides, quas ipsa decus sibi dia Camilla Camilla: Prima fugit domina amissa levis ala Camillae, Camillam: Lugentes campi; sic illos nomine dicunt.
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Mene Iliacis occumbere campis campis: Terra procul vastis colitur Mavortia campis campis: Iamque omnis campis exercitus ibat apertis campis: Tyrrhenamque manum totis descendere campis.
Atque ea dum campis victor dat funera Turnus, campis: Atque ea per campos aequo dum Marte geruntur, campos: Principio caelum ac terras camposque liquentis campum: Pergameumque Larem et canae penetralia Vestae canae: Assaracique larem et canae penetralia Vestae canas: Sidonio est invectus equo, quem candida Dido candida: At Venus aetherios inter dea candida nimbos candida: Iunoni cane vota libens dominamque potentem cane: Talia iactantem dictis ac dira canentem canentem: Vos, o Calliope, precor, aspirate canenti canentia: Dant famuli manibus lymphas, Cereremque canistris canistris: Hic canit errantem lunam solisque labores; canit: Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris cano: Threicia fretus cithara fidibusque canoris, canoro: At tuba terribilem sonitum procul aere canoro canoros: This quotation points to the practice of autopsy dissection of cadavers in Alexandria.
Whether Galen also studied anatomy this way is unclear. It is clear that Galen at least engaged in comparative anatomy by dissecting monkeys. In Galen returned to his hometown to become a surgeon to the gladiators. When civil unrest broke out inGalen left for Rome. The medical community in Rome was competitive and corrupt.
In Rome, Galen's ambition got the best of him with the result that his high profile created powerful enemies who caused him to depart secretly in After a couple of years in obscurity, Galen was recalled by the Roman Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus to serve the army in their war against the Germans.
For many years it has been held that Galen remained in Roman society until his death around based upon the Suda Lexicon written around ; however, new research by Vivian Nutton has persuasively set the date of Galen's death much later. Nutton proposes that Galen may have lived into his eighties possibly as old as The source for this new information comes from Byzantine and Arab scholars from the sixth century onwards.
On the basis of this, it seems that Galen died aroundgive or take several years, in the reign of Caracalla. A great many of Galen's works have survived. There are other Galenic works that only exist in Arabic translations. However, many of Galen's works are lost, e. Hellenistic Schools of Medicine During the end of the fourth century BCE and throughout the third century BCE there were enormous advances in medicine revolving around the principal practitioners: Diocles, Praxagoras, Herophilus, and Erasistratus.
It is, in fact, a perennial question in the philosophy of science. What is at issue is when does one impose a theoretical structure on the world? Part of the answer concerns the origins of the theoretical structure.
From whence did it arise? In part, this is a struggle for a logic of induction that might assist the practitioner. Without such a theory of inductive logic, it is unclear whether nature is revealing her nature to the careful observer or whether the observer is imposing his own ideas upon nature.
Aristotle discusses some of these issues in Posterior Analytics II. However, this is not the end of the question.
Some of this tension can be seen in the biomedical writers in the Hippocratic era. However, it is also true that in the construction of scientific theories there must, of necessity, be a tension between those who embrace theoretical structures and those who are skeptical of them.
The latter group generally bases their misgivings upon a possible tendency among theorists to create an a priori science. What makes a priori science troublesome is that it breaks contact with the empirical world.
It suggests that ratiocination about natural causes is sufficient for the production of scientific theories. For most natural philosophers such a stance is entirely unacceptable. Setting the proper balance between theory and observation was and continues to me an important question in the philosophy of science. One group that added to the debate on the role of observation were the Empiricists. This conjecture is based merely upon the testimony of later writers.
It could certainly be the case that there was no real medical empiricism, as such, before Serapion, a third century BCE doctor. Another interesting speculation on the origins of the empiricist physicians comes from Michael Frede. Frede has suggested that from a reference in Plato's Laws a-c; c-d that there was a two-tired medical system with physicians for the wealthy who employed theoretical principles and physicians for the slaves who relied merely upon trial-and-error experience.
If this speculation is correct, then the burden of proof for the empiricists is to show that the theoretical "book learning" of upper class doctors could be reduced to mere experience. In other words, experience, itself, could generate competence. The result would be an elevation of the second-level physician. If Frede is correct on this, then perhaps social situation is partially responsible for the rise of the medical empiricists. Sextus Empiricus circa set out a loosely woven doctrine of "consideration" or skepsis.
Sextus is a key source of our knowledge of Pyrrhonism and is also said to have been a physician though his writings on medicine have not survived. It is not clear whether Sextus was an original thinker or merely a reflection of his era. However, at the very least, one can garner background information of what might have influenced the empiricists through the doctrine of skepsis.
Under this doctrine the theoretical structures of the philosophers Dogmatists would be held in abeyance neither accepted nor rejected. What would rule the day would be the case before the physician right now. The case and the physician's experience would dictate the treatment. Against the Empiricists, on the other hand, were the philosophers Dogmatists. In one important way the Dogmatists are not a "school" as such.
They are often depicted by their detractors, such as the Empiricists, rather than being self-identifying. This may relate to the social class dynamics noted earlier. Thus, one should keep in mind that the group is not so much a school of practitioners but a depiction of a group by objectors to those who profess a foundation in medical theory. Perhaps the best way to characterize the Dogmatists would be on the issue of aetiology. The Empiricists attacked the Dogmatists for asserting that there might be hidden causes of disease, and that these hidden causes might be grasped via ratiocination.
This was because under this characterization the Dogmatists were advocating reasoning and conjecture over experience. To the Empiricists, this was akin to creating a priori science.
Detractors said that the Dogmatists honored theory over observation and experience. Of course, from the point of view of the philosophical schools, rational theories create a critical structure that aid in the interpretation and explanation of nature. The sense of explanation here harkens back to Aristotlewho distinguished knowing the fact hoti and the reasoned fact dioti, APo II, i. It may not be enough to know that if I as a physician do x, then y will result anecdotal correlation of two events.
The reason for this is that when circumstances alter slightly, how is the practitioner to know whether this alteration is significant unless he also has an appreciation of the mechanism that underlies the process? For example, anecdotal correlation might in a non-medical modern example suggest that every time I wash my car, it will rain.
My personal experience may be almost perfect, but that does not mean that such a causal connection actually exists. The reluctance to embrace a non-observable causal mechanism leaves this dilemma to those who profess an aversion to theory in favor of experience. Somewhat in the middle of these two schools were the Methodists. Aside from Soranus there are no surviving texts of the Methodists. Therefore most of what we have comes from the descriptions of Galen and pseudo-Galen on these writers.
The following are cited as being Methodists: There is some controversy about the characterization and origins of this school but many relate it to Themison of Laodicea a pupil of Asclepiades of Bithynia.
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However this attribution is disputed by Celsus and Soranus who state that Themison is not the first but merely a representative of Methodism. At any rate, the Methodists paid attention in contrast to the Dogmatists and Empiricists to the disease alone as opposed to the situation of the individual patient, that is, his medical history and personal situation. Thus, the physician does not have to have anatomical or physiological knowledge of the body.