Carbon 14 Dating Calculator
In this section we will explore the use of carbon dating to determine the age of decay to calculate the amount of carbon at any given time using the equation. A small collection of unexplained scientific phenomena. This is confirmed by some older carbon deposits (dated to be about billion years old) which show . Time doesn't always shed light on unexplained mysteries, though. . Carbon dating revealed that the script was written between the years.
Is There Really Scientific Evidence for a Young Earth?
If that's the case, it could take the colons only a few centuries to multiply on a new planet and build the resources to embark a few of their own on another successful star-hop, preciously keeping the knowledge to do so and expanding on it between hops.
Work out the math: Some of them must have been spawning rapidly for millions of years and hundreds or thousands of successive generations of colons. They should be everywhere by now. So much so that colons from many different lineages should be scouting suitable worlds like our own very regularly.
The Earth should have been colonized by a technically advanced civilization at a time when the dinosaurs where still around. This did not happen. Like Carl Sagan, you may enjoy speculating about the many possible reasons which could make this scenario unlikely.
Exponential Decay - Math Central
Don't let me spoil your fun. One of many explanations, however, is that some of the above guesses for the parameters of Drake's Formula are grossly overestimated. For example, George Wetherhill ran computer simulations in which seem to indicate that a dominant outer planet the size of Jupiter reduces by a factor of at least the probability that major bolides would hit inner planets capable of harboring life.
So, a huge outer planet like Jupiter might well be absolutely necessary. Also, a potential life-supporting planet may well need substantial tides to enrich its coastline chemistry in order to allow the emergence of life. A satellite like the Moon may thus be needed too As a result of these and other factors, it could very well be that it's only a rare galaxy that has ever harbored a civilization capable of interstellar travel.
Our Milky Way doesn't appear to be among those yet, and it may never be unless we get our own act together Is the Universe Full of Life? The Sun's lethal companion? Is there a periodic pattern to mass extinctions of species on Earth?
Could a distant companion of the Sun ["Nemesis"] explain this? This is quite puzzling, because at least two of the last three mass extinctions are firmly linked to the impact of a large asteroid crashing into the Earth. In particular, Luis W.
A priori, major asteroid impacts would be expected to be random events, not subject to any kind of periodicity. Most of the asteroids that could impact the Earth or other planets have already done so, when the Solar System was young. Major impacts in the mature Solar System are rather rare.
However, it is conceivable that the sufficiently close approach of a large enough body [a star or a brown dwarf] could upset the delicate balance of solar orbits and send some asteroids into new random orbits, not yet "time-tested" for staying clear of the Earth's path.
This could significantly increase the probability of impacts for a few million years Little else is known about this Death Star, whose gravitational disturbances could increase periodically the probability of major destructive impacts on Earth. An extrasolar body passing through the Solar System has only one [minute] chance of hitting the Earth, whereas a solar object could have many similar opportunities one per orbit, essentially It has also been observed that the known extinction impacts have left iridium-enriched clay boundaries in the geological record, which have isotopic ratios matching those of the Earth's crust.
This is a very strong indication that the impacting bodies originated within the Solar System. However, this evidence alone would be inconclusive to rule out asteroids from Nemesis, which may not be distinguishable at all from their solar counterparts, since Nemesis and the Sun could well have formed together about 4.
Although the gravitational pull of passerby stars would not allow a very elongated orbit to remain stable for much more than a billion years or so, the actual orbit of Nemesis could very well have evolved from a rounder and more stable orbit into a very elongated and relatively unstable one which could still last for another billion years, before the Sun and Nemesis drift apart permanently.
The Search for Nemesis As a brown dwarf more than 2 light-years away, Nemesis could easily have escaped detection up until now. Alternately, it could have been observed already but its close distance high parallax would not have been recognized yet. Astronomers call "proper motion" the tiny angular speed which makes a nearby star move, over a period of years, against the background of distant objects.
The half-life of an isotope is defined as the amount of time it takes for there to be half the initial amount of the radioactive isotope present. Modeling the decay of 14C. Returning to our example of carbon, knowing that the half-life of 14C is years, we can use this to find the constant, k.
Thus, we can write: Simplifying this expression by canceling the N0 on both sides of the equation gives. Solving for the unknown, k, we take the natural logarithm of both sides.
Thus, our equation for modeling the decay of 14C is given by. Other radioactive isotopes are also used to date fossils. The half-life for 14C is approximately years, therefore the 14C isotope is only useful for dating fossils up to about 50, years old.
Fossils older than 50, years may have an undetectable amount of 14C. For older fossils, an isotope with a longer half-life should be used. For example, the radioactive isotope potassium decays to argon with a half life of 1.