Evolutionary history of plants - Wikipedia
A5 (Aquarium fishes)] UF Angel fish [Former heading] Angelfish Angelfishes, NT Freshwater animals Freshwater microbiology Freshwater plants Mineral water . Plants And Animals Useful To Many Fish Dating. Deciding on online connections dating mental health in dating site uk. Fuck anyway want and physical abuse of. The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. The freshwater reservoir.
History of seafood Various foods depicted in an Egyptian burial chamber, including fish, c. The harvesting, processing, and consuming of seafoods are ancient practices with archaeological evidence dating back well into the Paleolithic. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity, constantly on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements though not necessarily permanently occupied such as those at Lepenski Virthey are almost always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
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The ancient river Nile was full of fish; fresh and dried fish were a staple food for much of the population. Some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime. World fisheries harvest, both wild and farmed, in million tonnes, —  World fisheries harvest, wild capture versus aquaculture production, in million tonnes —  Fishing scenes are rarely represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of the low social status of fishing.
However, Oppian of Corycusa Greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika, composed between and This is the earliest such work to have survived to the modern day.
The consumption of fish varied in accordance with the wealth and location of the household. In the Greek islands and on the coast, fresh fish and seafood squidoctopusand shellfish were common. They were eaten locally but more often transported inland. Sardines and anchovies were regular fare for the citizens of Athens.Aquarium-Top Aquaponics System
They were sometimes sold fresh, but more frequently salted. A stele of the late 3rd century BCE from the small Boeotian city of Akraiphiaon Lake Copaisprovides us with a list of fish prices.
A snowball earthfrom around mya, is believed to have been caused by early photosynthetic organisms, which reduced the concentration of carbon dioxide and increased the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere.
Charcoalification is an important taphonomic mode. Wildfire or burial in hot volcanic ash drives off the volatile compounds, leaving only a residue of pure carbon. This is not a viable food source for fungi, herbivores or detritovores, so is prone to preservation. It is also robust, so can withstand pressure and display exquisite, sometimes sub-cellular, detail. Evolution of life cycles[ edit ] Angiosperm life cycle All multicellular plants have a life cycle comprising two generations or phases.
The pattern in plant evolution has been a shift from homomorphy to heteromorphy. The algal ancestors of land plants were almost certainly haplobionticbeing haploid for all their life cycles, with a unicellular zygote providing the 2N stage. All land plants i.
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It has been proposed that the basis for the emergence of the diploid phase of the life cycle as the dominant phase, is that diploidy allows masking of the expression of deleterious mutations through genetic complementation. As the diploid phase was becoming predominant, the masking effect likely allowed genome sizeand hence information content, to increase without the constraint of having to improve accuracy of replication.
The opportunity to increase information content at low cost is advantageous because it permits new adaptations to be encoded. This view has been challenged, with evidence showing that selection is no more effective in the haploid than in the diploid phases of the lifecycle of mosses and angiosperms.
The interpolation theory also known as the antithetic or intercalary theory  holds that the interpolation of a multicellular sporophyte phase between two successive gametophyte generations was an innovation caused by preceding meiosis in a freshly germinated zygote with one or more rounds of mitotic division, thereby producing some diploid multicellular tissue before finally meiosis produced spores. This theory implies that the first sporophytes bore a very different and simpler morphology to the gametophyte they depended on.
Increasing complexity of the ancestrally simple sporophyte, including the eventual acquisition of photosynthetic cells, would free it from its dependence on a gametophyte, as seen in some hornworts Anthocerosand eventually result in the sporophyte developing organs and vascular tissue, and becoming the dominant phase, as in the tracheophytes vascular plants.
The observed appearance of larger axial sizes, with room for photosynthetic tissue and thus self-sustainability, provides a possible route for the development of a self-sufficient sporophyte phase. Since the same genetic material would be employed by both the haploid and diploid phases they would look the same.
This explains the behaviour of some algae, such as Ulva lactuca, which produce alternating phases of identical sporophytes and gametophytes.
Subsequent adaption to the desiccating land environment, which makes sexual reproduction difficult, might have resulted in the simplification of the sexually active gametophyte, and elaboration of the sporophyte phase to better disperse the waterproof spores.
The earliest land plants did not have vascular systems for transport of water and nutrients either. Aglaophytona rootless vascular plant known from Devonian fossils in the Rhynie chert  was the first land plant discovered to have had a mycorrhizal relationship with fungi  which formed arbusculesliterally "tree-like fungal roots", in a well-defined cylinder of cells ring in cross section in the cortex of its stems.
The fungi fed on the plant's sugars, in exchange for nutrients generated or extracted from the soil especially phosphateto which the plant would otherwise have had no access. Like other rootless land plants of the Silurian and early Devonian Aglaophyton may have relied on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for acquisition of water and nutrients from the soil.
Xylem To photosynthesise, plants must absorb CO2 from the atmosphere. However, this comes at a price, since making the tissues available for CO2 to enter allows water to evaporate.
Early land plants transported water apoplasticallywithin the porous walls of their cells. Later, they evolved the ability to control water loss and CO2 acquisition through the use of a waterproof outer covering or cuticle perforated by stomatavariable apertures that could open and close to regulate evapotranspiration.
Specialised water transport vascular tissues subsequently evolved, first in the form of hydroidsthen tracheids and secondary xylemfollowed by vessels in flowering plants. This transition from poikilohydry to homoiohydry opened up new potential for colonisation.
As CO2 was withdrawn from the atmosphere by plants, more water was lost in its capture, and more elegant water acquisition and transport mechanisms evolved. By the end of the Carboniferous, when CO2 concentrations had been reduced to something approaching today's, around 17 times more water was lost per unit of CO2 uptake.
Even today, water transport takes advantage of the cohesion-tension property of water. Water can be wicked along a fabric with small spaces, and in narrow columns of water, such as those within the plant cell walls or in tracheids, when molecules evaporate from one end, they pull the molecules behind them along the channels. Therefore, transpiration alone provides the driving force for water transport in plants.
The bands are difficult to see on this specimen, as an opaque carbonaceous coating conceals much of the tube. Bands are just visible in places on the left half of the image.
During the early Silurian, they developed specialized xylem cells, with walls that were strengthened by bands of lignification or similar chemical compounds. The early Devonian pretracheophytes Aglaophyton and Horneophyton have unreinforced water transport tubes with wall structures very similar to the hydroids of modern moss sporophytes, but they grew alongside several species of tracheophytes, such as Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii that had well-reinforced xylem tracheids. The earliest macrofossils known to have xylem tracheids are small, mid-Silurian plants of the genus Cooksonia.
Thickened bands on the walls of tubes, apparent from the early Silurian onwards,  are adaptations to increase the resistance to collapse under tension   and, when they form single celled conduits, are referred to as tracheids. These, the "next generation" of transport cell design, have a more rigid structure than hydroids, preventing their collapse at higher levels of water tension.
This is an important role where water supply is not constant, and indeed stomata appear to have evolved before tracheids, since they are present in the sporophytes of mosses and the non-vascular hornworts. The endodermis can also provide an upwards pressure, forcing water out of the roots when transpiration is not enough of a driver. Once plants had evolved this level of controlled water transport, they were truly homoiohydricable to extract water from their environment through root-like organs rather than relying on a film of surface moisture, enabling them to grow to much greater size.
Pits in tracheid walls have very small diameters, preventing air bubbles from passing through to adjacent tracheids. By the Carboniferous, Gymnosperms had developed bordered pits  valve-like structures that seal the pits when one side of a tracheid is depressurized. Defunct tracheids were retained to form a strong, woody stem, produced in most instances by a secondary xylem. However, in early plants, tracheids were too mechanically vulnerable, and retained a central position, with a layer of tough sclerenchyma on the outer rim of the stems.
Tracheids end with walls, which impose a great deal of resistance on flow;  vessel members have perforated end walls, and are arranged in series to operate as if they were one continuous vessel. An embolism is where an air bubble is created in a tracheid. This may happen as a result of freezing, or by gases dissolving out of solution. Once an embolism is formed, it usually cannot be removed but see later ; the affected cell cannot pull water up, and is rendered useless.
End walls excluded, the tracheids of prevascular plants were able to operate under the same hydraulic conductivity as those of the first vascular plant, Cooksonia. The branching pattern of megaphyll veins may indicate their origin as webbed, dichotomising branches.
The megaphyllous leaf architecture arose multiple times in different plant lineages Leaves are the primary photosynthetic organs of a modern plant.
The origin of leaves was almost certainly triggered by falling concentrations of atmospheric CO2 during the Devonian period, increasing the efficiency with which carbon dioxide could be captured for photosynthesis.
Based on their structure, they are classified into two types: It has been proposed that these structures arose independently. All three steps happened multiple times in the evolution of today's leaves. However, Wolfgang Hagemann questioned it for morphological and ecological reasons and proposed an alternative theory.
Axes such as stems and roots evolved later as new organs. Rolf Sattler proposed an overarching process-oriented view that leaves some limited room for both the telome theory and Hagemann's alternative and in addition takes into consideration the whole continuum between dorsiventral flat and radial cylindrical structures that can be found in fossil and living land plants.
Thus, James  concluded that "it is now widely accepted that In fact, it is simply the timing of the KNOX gene expression! Today's megaphyll leaves probably became commonplace some mya, about 40my after the simple leafless plants had colonized the land in the Early Devonian. This spread has been linked to the fall in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in the Late Paleozoic era associated with a rise in density of stomata on leaf surface. Increasing the stomatal density allowed for a better-cooled leaf, thus making its spread feasible, but increased CO2 uptake at the expense of decreased water use efficiency.
The early to middle Devonian trimerophytes may be considered leafy.